It is located in the south-west Sinai Peninsula where turquoise was mined extensively in antiquity, mainly by the ancient Egyptians. Archaeological excavation, initially by Sir Flinders Petrie, revealed the ancient mining camps. Pharaohs of the 3rd Dynasty (2670-2570 BC) began the long tradition of dispatching mining expeditions to this remote and desolate area. Methodical mining for this attractive stone continued well after the 12th Dynasty (1955-1750 BC) when a temple was dedicated to the goddess Hathor, who was favored as a protector in desert regions and the Lady of Turquoise. The temple stands on a plateau about 850 meters above sea level.